The Pharisees were a very strict Jewish faction, and are now existing under the name of "Rabbinic Judaism". Their purpose is to unify, compile, and adhere to the law of Moses. (But, that's another article.)
"And they sent out unto him their disciples with the Herodians, saying, Master, we know that thou art true, and teachest the way of God in truth, neither carest thou for any [man]: for thou regardest not the person of men."
"Tell us therefore, What thinkest thou? Is it lawful to give tribute unto Caesar, or not?"
Please note the wording of the question: "Is it lawful..."
"But Jesus perceived their wickedness, and said, Why tempt ye me, ye hypocrites?"
"Shew me the tribute money. And they brought unto him a penny."
"And he saith unto them, Whose is this image and superscription?"
"They say unto him, Caesar's. Then saith he unto them, Render therefore unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's; and unto God the things that are God's."
"When they had heard these words, they marvelled, and left him, and went their way."
Jesus was asked if it is lawful to pay taxes. His response, in my opinion, meant "yes, only if that's the law". It would be silly for a person to pay taxes not required of them, and equally stupid to break the law by not paying what is due.
In America, we retain the right to protest an unfair law, or if it's an un-Constitutional law, to refuse it.
The Constitution is the law that supercedes all other laws in the U.S.; God's law supercedes all laws everywhere.
"And they began to accuse him, saying, We found this fellow perverting the nation, and forbidding to give tribute to Caesar, saying that he himself is Christ a King." ~Luke 23:2
Comments are welcome; discussion is encouraged.